3D printing using concrete extrusion: a roadmap for research

Large-scale additive manufacturing processes for construction utilise computer-controlled placement of extruded cement-based mortar to create physical objects layer-by-layer. Demonstrated applications include component manufacture and placement of in-situ walls for buildings. These applications vary the constraints on design parameters and present different technical issues for the production process. In this paper, published and new work are utilised to explore the relationship between fresh and hardened paste, mortar, and concrete material properties and how they influence the geometry of the created object. Findings are classified by construction application to create a matrix of issues that identifies the spectrum of future research exploration in this emerging field.