4G antennas for wireless eyewear devices and related SAR

In this paper, we first present a feasibility study to design 4G antennas (700–960 MHz and 1.7–2.7 GHz) for eyewear devices. Those eyewear devices should be connected to the last generation cellular networks, Wireless Local Area Networks or wireless hotspots. Three coupling element type antennas with their matching networks are evaluated in terms of reflection coefficient and total radiation efficiency when the eyewear is placed on the user's head. We also present Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) simulations when the eyewear is positioned over a homogeneous SAM phantom and over a heterogeneous VH (Visible Human) phantom: the SAR levels are compared to international limit values. In a second step, we present experimental results obtained with 3D printed eyewear and coupling elements etched on a classical PCB substrate where the matching circuits are optimized close to the feeding point of the coupling element. Simulated and measured values are in very good agreement: 7 to 16% and 9 to 35% total efficiency are respectively obtained for the low- and high-frequency bands. However, simulated SAR values are somewhat higher than authorized levels with preoccupant high electromagnetic field distribution close to the eye of the user.