A dynamic two-dimensional (D2D) weight-based map-matching algorithm

Existing map-Matching (MM) algorithms primarily localize positioning fixes along the centerline of a road and have largely ignored road width as an input. Consequently, vehicle lane-level localization, which is essential for stringent Intelligent Transport System (ITS) applications, seems difficult to accomplish, especially with the positioning data from low-cost GPS sensors. This paper aims to address this limitation by developing a new dynamic two-dimensional (D2D) weight-based MM algorithm incorporating dynamic weight coefficients and road width. To enable vehicle lane-level localization, a road segment is virtually expressed as a matrix of homogeneous grids with reference to a road centerline. These grids are then used to map-match positioning fixes as opposed to matching on a road centerline as carried out in traditional MM algorithms. In this developed algorithm, vehicle location identification on a road segment is based on the total weight score which is a function of four different weights: (i) proximity, (ii) kinematic, (iii) turn-intent prediction, and (iv) connectivity. Different parameters representing network complexity and positioning quality are used to assign the relative importance to different weight scores by employing an adaptive regression method. To demonstrate the transferability of the developed algorithm, it was tested by using 5,830 GPS positioning points collected in Nottingham, UK and 7,414 GPS positioning points collected in Mumbai and Pune, India. The developed algorithm, using stand-alone GPS position fixes, identifies the correct links 96.1% (for the Nottingham data) and 98.4% (for the Mumbai-Pune data) of the time. In terms of the correct lane identification, the algorithm was found to provide the accurate matching for 84% (Nottingham) and 79% (Mumbai-Pune) of the fixes obtained by stand-alone GPS. Using the same methodology adopted in this study, the accuracy of the lane identification could further be enhanced if the localization data from additional sensors (e.g. gyroscope) are utilized. ITS industry and vehicle manufacturers can implement this D2D map-matching algorithm for liability critical and in-vehicle information systems and services such as advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS).