A human factors systems approach to exploring vehicle rollaway
2018-06-22T13:01:54Z (GMT) by
Failure of a parked unattended vehicle to remain stationary, otherwise known as vehicle rollaway, can result in property damage, injury or even fatality. Although the incidence of vehicle rollaway may be under reported, around 8% of drivers and 13% of Approved Driving Instructors surveyed indicated they had experienced a vehicle rollaway event. Unlike previous studies which focused only on the mechanical factors that may contribute to this phenomenon, the research presented in this thesis employed a more comprehensive, systems approach to explore additional factors related to the driver s interaction with the parking brake system at various interface levels. A mixed methods strategy collated data through two online surveys and three observational studies to explore the organisational, mechanical and driver related factors identified in a fault tree framework. The results indicated that current driver practice and interaction with the parking brake system may be contrary to legislative requirements and manufacturer s instruction. The findings suggested that a past experience of vehicle rollaway or parking brake system failure, had a statistically significant influence on whether the driver complied with the recommended practice. Driver interaction and the holding capability of the parking brake system were observed in 53 vehicles parked on three test gradients. The observations indicated that drivers were able to apply sufficient force to the parking brake lever to hold the vehicle stationary and that an additional degree of confidence in the system was provided by parking in gear. But, after driving a short commuting route, when the vehicle was parked with the parking brake lever applied to the lowest position to hold the vehicle and a gear was not selected, 63% of vehicles fitted with disc brakes rolled as the temperature returned to ambient. Discussion relates to the organisational, driver related and mechanical components of the parking brake system and in reference to Reason s Swiss Cheese model, considers how latent failures within the defensive layers of the system can contribute to rollaway. The research findings contributed to a change in UK driving standards and since 2015, drivers are recommended to park in gear at all times to reduce the risk of rollaway. This recommendation is likely to require a change in practice for up to 80% of Approved Driving Instructors who would not normally instruct new drivers in this way. Although this research focused on the manually operated parking brake system, the studies have uncovered results that can contribute to knowledge and are applicable to interaction with electronic parking brake systems. As parking brake systems develop, the Human Factors systems approach can be applied retrospectively and proactively to explore that interaction and prevent passenger vehicle rollaway.