A socioemotional wealth perspective on how collaboration intensity, trust, and international market knowledge affect family firms' multinationality

Internationalization theory does not account for the priority family firms place on socioemotional wealth (SEW). This can reshape how critical theoretical dimensions of collaboration intensity, network trust, and international market knowledge exert their effects. Bringing together the internationalization model of Johanson and Vahlne (2009) with SEW theory, our study of 334 German-speaking family firms reveals international market knowledge mediates the relationship between collaboration intensity and family firms' multinationality. High network trust positively moderates the relationship between collaboration intensity and the acquisition of international market knowledge. Our work expands the predictive ability of Johanson and Vahlne's (2009) important model.