A subject-specific computer simulation model of the one-handed backhand groundstroke in tennis

A subject-specific computer model of a tennis player, combined with an equipmentspecific computer model of tennis ball/racket impacts was used to determine the effect of ball/racket impacts on loading at the elbow for one-handed backhand groundstrokes. A matching subject-specific computer simulation of a typical topspin one-handed backhand groundstroke performed by an elite tennis player was determined with a root mean square difference between performance and matching simulation of less than 1º over a 50 ms period starting from ball impact. Using a subject-specific angle-driven computer model combined with a forward dynamics, equipment-specific computer model of tennis ball/racket impacts allows peak internal loading, net impulse and shock due to ball/racket impact to be calculated which would not otherwise be possible without impractical invasive techniques. This investigation provides a basis for further studies into the factors that may increase elbow loading during tennis strokes.