A systemic BIM innovation model in the construction supply chain

BIM innovation research has mainly focused on diffusion models of acceptance at the individual and organisational levels. However, BIM has the potential to bring together multiple organisations working collaboratively in a coordinated fashion. Realising this potential requires a study of BIM innovation at the inter-organisational level, which is considered to be systemic BIM innovation. Systemic BIM innovation and its effect in the construction supply chain have not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this paper is to present a critical review of literature on the diffusion of BIM innovation in the construction industry. A conceptual model of systemic BIM innovation is developed and presented. The proposed model incorporates factors such as individual BIM acceptance, organisation's drivers of BIM usage, organisation's linkages, supply chain management challenges, and the role of context. It is found that variables facilitating systemic BIM innovation are interrelated at different analytical levels, and are shaped by the context. Directions for future research and empirical validation are presented.