A validated model of GAG deposition, cell distribution, and growth of tissue engineered cartilage cultured in a rotating bioreactor

The purpose of this article is to review the different strategies for the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based gene therapy. Plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA capable of being transmitted from cell to cell. They are supercoiled, circular covalently closed (ccc) strands of DNA capable of replication independently of host DNA and ranging from 5 to 400 kilo base pairs (kb) in size, depending on the size of the therapeutic gene insert.