Acoustic absorption and the unsteady flow associated with circular apertures in a gas turbine environment
2013-08-20T09:16:36Z (GMT) by
This work is concerned with the fluid dynamic processes and the associated loss of acoustic energy produced by circular apertures within noise absorbing perforated walls. Although applicable to a wide range of engineering applications particular emphasis in this work is placed on the use of such features within a gas turbine combustion system. The primary aim for noise absorbers in gas turbine combustion systems is the elimination of thermo-acoustic instabilities, which are characterised by rapidly rising pressure amplitudes which are potentially damaging to the combustion system components. By increasing the amount of acoustic energy being absorbed the occurrence of thermo-acoustic instabilities can be avoided. The fundamental acoustic characteristics relating to linear acoustic absorption are presented. It is shown that changes in orifice geometry, in terms of gas turbine combustion system representative length-to-diameter ratios, result in changes in the measured Rayleigh Conductivity. Furthermore in the linear regime the maximum possible acoustic energy absorption for a given cooling mass flow budget of a conventional combustor wall will be identified. An investigation into current Rayleigh Conductivity and aperture impedance (1D) modelling techniques are assessed and the ranges of validity for these modelling techniques will be identified. Moreover possible improvements to the modelling techniques are discussed. Within a gas turbine system absorption can also occur in the non-linear operating regime. Hence the influence of the orifice geometry upon the optimum non-linear acoustic absorption is also investigated. Furthermore the performance of non-linear acoustic absorption modelling techniques is evaluated against the conducted measurements. As the amplitudes within the combustion system increase the acoustic absorption will transition from the linear to the non-linear regime. This is important for the design of absorbers or cooling geometries for gas turbine combustion systems as the propensity for hot gas ingestion increases. Hence the relevant parameters and phenomena are investigated during the transition process from linear to non-linear acoustic absorption. The unsteady velocity field during linear and non-linear acoustic absorption is captured using particle image velocimetry. A novel analysis technique is developed which enables the identification of the unsteady flow field associated with the acoustic absorption. In this way an investigation into the relevant mechanisms within the unsteady flow fields to describe the acoustic absorption behaviour of the investigated orifice plates is conducted. This methodology will also help in the development and optimisation of future damping systems and provide validation for more sophisticated 3D numerical modelling methods. Finally a set of design tools developed during this work will be discussed which enable a comprehensive preliminary design of non-resonant and resonant acoustic absorbers with multiple perforated liners within a gas turbine combustion system. The tool set is applied to assess the impact of the gas turbine combustion system space envelope, complex swirling flow fields and the propensity to hot gas ingestion in the preliminary design stages.