An optimization study of estimating blood pressure models based on pulse arrival time for continuous monitoring

Continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring has a significant meaning for the prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. However, under different calibration methods, it is difficult to determine which model is better for estimating BP. This study was firstly designed to reveal a better BP estimation model by evaluating and optimizing different BP models under a justified and uniform criterion, i.e., the advanced point-to-point pairing method (PTP). Here, the physical trial in this study caused the BP increase largely. In addition, the PPG and ECG signals were collected while the cuff bps were measured for each subject. The validation was conducted on four popular vascular elasticity (VE) models (MK-EE, L-MK, MK-BH, and dMK-BH) and one representative elastic tube (ET) model, i.e., M-M. The results revealed that the VE models except for L-MK outperformed the ET model. The linear L-MK as a VE model had the largest estimated error, and the nonlinear M-M model had a weaker correlation between the estimated BP and the cuff BP than MK-EE, MK-BH, and dMK-BH models. Further, in contrast to L-MK, the dMK-BH model had the strongest correlation and the smallest difference between the estimated BP and the cuff BP including systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) than others. In this study, the simple MK-EE model showed the best similarity to the dMK-BH model. There were no significant changes between MK-EE and dMK-BH models. These findings indicated that the nonlinear MK-EE model with low estimated error and simple mathematical expression was a good choice for application in wearable sensor devices for cuff-less BP monitoring compared to others.



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