Analysing parking search ('cruising') time using generalised multilevel structural equation modelling

The aim of this paper is to identify factors influencing parking search (cruising) time. A revealed-preference on-street parking survey was undertaken with individual drivers in four UK cities to investigate the influence of personal, trip, socio-economic, physical, time-related, and price-related variables on parking search. In order to address the potential endogeneity problems between the factors (e.g. parking fee and parking search time) and hierarchical issues in the survey data, a generalised multilevel structural equation model was applied. It was revealed that cruising time could be reduced by seeking drivers to pay for parking as a way of improving social welfare.