Bringing toilets back to Kumasi's compound houses: landlord and tenant behaviours and motivators

In the low-income urban communities of Kumasi, Ghana, a large part of the population live in compound housing, where they often share the same living space with more than 20 tenants. Partly resulting from the high prevalence of public toilets in the city, the vast majority of these tenants have no access to ‘inhouse’ sanitation. Led by the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly, a five-year strategy is being prepared to promote increased adoption, access, usage and maintenance of compound toilets in Kumasi’s lowincome communities. This paper shares the results of a desk and field-based study commissioned to inform the strategy: among the key challenges to be confronted are the clarification of responsibilities between landlords and tenants with regards to financing sanitation improvements, and the need to motivate landlords - at the hub of compound level sanitation governance - to improve the situation for the betterment of their tenants.