Characterisation of an antenna system implanted into a limb phantom for monitoring of bone fracture healing

An antenna system consisting of two implanted monopoles has been investigated. The proposed structure has been simulated in a cylindrical three layer limb phantom and the S11 andS21 responses of the system have been evaluated for the 0.5 to 5 GHz frequency range. This process occurred as the bone fracture that was introduced in the middle of the phantom gradually healed turning from blood to bone marrow and bone cortical in five discrete steps.