Chitosan and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) microparticles produced by membrane emulsification for encapsulation and pH controlled release

© 2015 Elsevier B.V. The Dispersion Cell membrane emulsification technique was used for the production of w/o emulsions with controlled droplet size and narrow size distribution. The influence of the operating parameters of the process was investigated. Varying the dispersed phase flux (10-1250 L h-1 m-2) and the shear stress (2-59 Pa), droplets between 30 and 280 μm were produced with CV's as low as 18%. Nickel and stainless steel membranes were used for the membrane emulsification. Pore geometry influenced the droplet size as well as uniformity and a normally hydrophilic stainless steel membrane with sharp pore openings produced more uniform and smaller drops compared to a PTFE coated hydrophobic nickel membrane with a conical pore surface. For the dispersed phase 15 wt.% PVA or 1-3 wt.% chitosan as well as their blends in water were used. Surfactants PGPR and ABIL EM90 were tested to determine their capability to form stable emulsions in Miglyol 840. PGPR could not be used to stabilize the emulsion with chitosan as the dispersed phase, probably due to the chemical interference between the carboxyl group present in the PGPR and chitosan. Solid microparticles were obtained by chemical crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations (1-50 vol.%). Particles crosslinked using less than 10 vol.% GA were able to swell and release encapsulated compounds. Acid sensitive particles were produced by blending the PVA and chitosan. Up to 80% of Cu2+ and 20% of sodium salicylate was released from the particles under acidic conditions. No significant release was determined under neutral conditions.