Circulating biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in people with cystic fibrosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Introduction: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF). This review aimed to quantify CF-related redox imbalances.
Methods: Systematic searches of the Medline, CINAHL, CENTRAL and PsycINFO databases were conducted. Mean content of blood biomarkers from people with clinically-stable CF and non-CF controls were used to calculate the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
Results: Forty-nine studies were eligible for this review including a total of 1,792 people with CF and 1,675 controls. Meta-analysis revealed that protein carbonyls (SMD: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.77), total F2-isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (SMD: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.23 to 1.05) and malondialdehyde (SMD: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.30 to 2.39) were significantly higher, and vitamins A (SMD: -0.66, 95% CI -1.14 to -0.17) and E (SMD: -0.74, 95% CI: -1.28 to -0.20), β-carotene (SMD: -1.80, 95% CI: -2.92 to -0.67), lutein (SMD: -1.52, 95% CI: -1.83 to -1.20) and albumin (SMD: -0.98, 95% CI: -1.68 to -0.27) were significantly lower in the plasma or serum of people with CF versus controls.
Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis found good evidence for reduced antioxidant capacity and elevated oxidative stress in people with clinically-stable CF.