Collisions at sea: A systems analysis of casual factors and countermeasures

Despite established and proven prescriptive safety legislation, accidents regularly occur across all sectors of shipping. Of particular concern is the number of collisions that continue to occur, even when experienced and trained officers are on board and modern navigation aids are in use. Using a systems approach, this paper will highlight common contributory factors, which can lead to collisions and then propose a set of countermeasures which can be used to reduce these types of shipping accidents.