Combination probes for stagnation pressure and temperature measurements in gas turbine engines

During gas turbine engine testing, steady-state gas-path stagnation pressures and temperatures are measured in order to calculate the efficiencies of the main components of turbomachinery. These measurements are acquired using fixed intrusive probes, which are installed at the inlet and outlet of each component at discrete point locations across the gas-path. The overall uncertainty in calculated component efficiency is sensitive to the accuracy of discrete point pressures and temperatures, as well as the spatial sampling across the gas-path. Both of these aspects of the measurement system must be considered if more accurate component efficiencies are to be determined. High accuracy has become increasingly important as engine manufacturers have begun to pursue small gains in component performance, which require efficiencies to be resolved to within less than ±1%. This article reports on three new probe designs that have been developed in a response to this demand. The probes adopt a compact combination arrangement that facilitates up to twice the spatial coverage compared to individual stagnation pressure and temperature probes. The probes also utilise novel temperature sensors and high recovery factor shield designs that facilitate improvements in point measurement accuracy compared to standard Kiel probes used in engine testing. These changes allow efficiencies to be resolved within ±1% over a wider range of conditions than is currently achievable with Kiel probes.