Computer graphics standards for man modelling

The human being is arguably one of the most nonstandard and unpredictable components of all systems. Thus, in many application areas of computer-aided design, there is a need to model the physical aspects of humans alongside models of workplace and equipment. The paper briefly describes the Sammie systems, a long-established and succesful computer-aided design system that has fulfilled this requirement across a wide range of application areas. Recently, much development work has been aimed at incorporating a range of graphics and data-exchange standards into the Sammie software. These experiences are described, together with observations on their apparent limitations and advantages. In particular, the Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (Phigs), its extension to Phigs-Plus, the Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM), the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (iges), and X-Windows with the Phigs extension (Pex) are considered.