Critical control in transcritical shallow-water flow over two obstacles
2015-11-18T16:23:36Z (GMT) by
The nonlinear shallow-water equations are often used to model flow over topography. In this paper we use these equations both analytically and numerically to study flow over two widely separated localised obstacles, and compare the outcome with the corresponding flow over a single localised obstacle. Initially we assume uniform flow with constant water depth, which is then perturbed by the obstacles. The upstream flow can be characterised as subcritical, supercritical and transcritical, respectively. We review the well-known theory for flow over a single localised obstacle, where in the transcritical regime the flow is characterised by a local hydraulic flow over the obstacle, contained between an elevation shock propagating upstream and a depression shock propagating downstream. Classical shock closure conditions are used to determine these shocks. Then we show that the same approach can be used to describe the flow over two widely spaced localised obstacles. The flow development can be characterised by two stages. The first stage is the generation of upstream elevation shock and downstream depression shock from each obstacle alone, isolated from the other obstacle. The second stage is the interaction of two shocks between the two obstacles, followed by an adjustment to a hydraulic flow over both obstacles, with criticality being controlled by the higher of the two obstacles, and by the second obstacle when they have equal heights. This hydraulic flow is terminated by an elevation shock propagating upstream of the first obstacle and a depression shock propagating downstream of the second obstacle. A weakly nonlinear model for sufficiently small obstacles is developed to describe this second stage. The theoretical results are compared with fully nonlinear simulations obtained using a well-balanced finite-volume method. The analytical results agree quite well with the nonlinear simulations for sufficiently small obstacles.