Design and characterization of a three material anatomical bone phantom for implanted antenna applications

This work presents the development and testing of a three layer anatomical human body phantom suitable for microwave applications. The proposed phantom consisted of bone marrow, bone cortical and muscle layers. The ingredients used for each tissue along with the calculation of the mean square error of the dielectric properties showed good agreement with the dielectric properties of real life tissues and the IEEE SAR measurement standard for tissue mimicking phantoms. The geometrical characteristics of the bone layer can be adjusted to fit the geometry of any desired bone in the human body. The suitability of the phantom has been tested using an implanted antennas application, which has yielded comparable simulation and measurement results.