Differentiation of ankle sprain motion and common sporting motion by ankle inversion velocity

This study investigated the ankle inversion and inversion velocity between various common motions in sports and simulated sprain motion, in order to provide a threshold for ankle sprain risk identification. The experiment was composed of two parts: Firstly, ten male subjects wore a pair of sport shoes and performed ten trials of running, cutting, jump-landing and stepping-down motions. Secondly, five subjects performed five trials of simulated sprain motion by a supination sprain simulator. The motions were analyzed by an eight-camera motion capture system at 120. Hz. A force plate was employed to record the vertical ground reaction force and locate the foot strike time for common sporting motions. Ankle inversion and inversion velocity were calculated by a standard lower extremity biomechanics calculation procedure. Profiles of vertical ground reaction force, ankle inversion angle and ankle inversion velocity were obtained. Results suggested that the ankle was kept in an everted position during the stance. The maximum ankle inversion velocity ranged from 22.5 to 85.1°/s and 114.0 to 202.5°/s for the four tested motions and simulated sprain motion respectively. Together with the ankle inversion velocity reported in the injury case (623°/s), a threshold of ankle inversion velocity of 300°/s was suggested for the identification of ankle sprain. The information obtained in this study can serve as a basis for the development of an active protection apparatus for reducing ankle sprain injury. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.