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Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women

journal contribution
posted on 10.02.2017 by David Clayton, Kirsty Burrell, Georgina Mynott, Mark Creese, Nicola Skidmore, David Stensel, Lewis James
Background: Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence. Objective: We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake. Design: Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean 6 SD: 9.3 6 1.3 MJ; energy balance) or 25% [2.3 6 0.3 MJ; energy restriction (ER)] of energy requirements. On day 2, a standardized breakfast was consumed, with plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids determined for 4 h. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at lunch and dinner with subjective appetite and resting metabolism assessed throughout. On day 3, ad libitum energy intake was assessed at breakfast and by weighed food records. Results: Energy intake was 7% greater on day 2 (P , 0.05) during ER but not significantly different on day 3 (P = 0.557). Subjective appetite was greater during ER on the morning of day 2 (P , 0.05) but was not significantly different thereafter (P . 0.145). During ER, postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin were lower (P , 0.05), whereas glucose (P , 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (P , 0.0001) were higher. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide 17-36 (P = 0.784) and insulin (P = 0.06) concentrations were not significantly different between trials. Energy expenditure was lower during ER in the morning (P , 0.01). Conclusions: In lean young adults, 24-h SER transiently elevated subjective appetite and marginally increased energy intake, but hormonal appetite markers did not respond in a manner indicative of hyperphagia. These results suggest that intermittent SER might be useful to attenuate energy intake and control body weight in this population.


National Institute for Health Research Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit based at University Hospitals of Leicester and Loughborough University.



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition






1545 - 1553


CLAYTON, D.J. ... et al, 2016. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104 (6), pp. 1545-1553.


© American Society for Nutrition


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