Effect of postural changes on lower limb blood volume, detected with non-invasive photoplethysmography

This paper describes the effect of passive leg raising on blood volume change in the lower limb, using a dual probe photoplethysmography (PPG) system employing a tissue optics model. The normalized AC/DC ratio and DC value are introduced from the model to evaluate the dynamic pulsation and total blood volume changes due to postural effects. The AC and DC components of PPG signals were collected from a passive leg raising protocol. With the leg raised, the normalized AC/DC ratio significantly decreased when supine, while the normalized DC value increased significantly in both supine and reclining positions. The parameters from the stationary leg showed similar but smaller responses. These results demonstrate a local and systemic physiological phenomenon in the lower limb blood volume change caused by postural changes. The normalized AC/DC ratio and DC value derived from the tissue optics model could be applied to assess the blood volume change.