Effect of the fabrication parameters on the performance of embroidered antennas

Simulated and measured microstrip patch antennas produced using embroidery techniques have been presented. The antennas use a standard microwave substrate material. The effect of stitch direction and stitch density is described and a clear requirement to understand how the currents flow in an antenna so that the stitch direction can be correctly chosen is shown. Two different simulation approaches for these antennas are discussed and one is linked to measurement results, pointing to a simplified model for simulating embroidered patch antennas.