Efficient access to conjugated 4,4′-bipyridinium oligomers using the Zincke reaction: Synthesis, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties

The cyclocondensation reaction between rigid, electron-rich aromatic diamines and 1,1′-bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-4,4′-bipyridinium (Zincke) salts has been harnessed to produce a series of conjugated oligomers containing up to twelve aromatic/heterocyclic residues. These oligomers exhibit discrete, multiple redox processes accompanied by dramatic changes in electronic absorption spectra.