Embroidery and related manufacturing techniques for wearable antennas: Challenges and opportunities

This paper will review the evolution of wearable textile antennas over the last couple of decades. Particular emphasis will be given to the process of embroidery. This technique is advantageous for the following reasons: (i) bespoke or mass produced designs can be manufactured using digitized embroidery machines; (ii) glue is not required and (iii) the designs are aesthetic and are integrated into clothing rather than being attached to it. The embroidery technique will be compared to alternative manufacturing processes. The challenges facing the industrial and public acceptance of this technology will be assessed. Hence, the key opportunities will be highlighted.