Energy intake and appetite responses following manipulation of fluid balance and intake
2017-10-09T15:15:56Z (GMT) by
Fluid intake and regulation are implicated in the control of energy balance and appetite. The studies in this thesis have examined the effects of fluid manipulation on appetite and energy intake. Fifty-eight young, predominantly Caucasian males were recruited to five studies. The age, height and body mass of the subjects were: 24.9 ± 3.8 y, 1.79 ± 0.1 m, 80.1 ± 14.8 kg (mean ± SD) respectively. In Chapter 3, 13 h of hypohydration after exercise in the heat did not influence energy intake at an ad-libitum buffet meal (P=0.436) compared to a euhydrated trial, although greater thirst (P<0.001) and lower fullness (P<0.01) was reported in the hypohydration trial. Chapter 4 demonstrated that there was no difference in energy intake or appetite after 24 h of hypohydration either with or without fluid during a semi-solid ad-libitum breakfast. Thirst and fluid intake were greater during the hypohydrated with fluid (HYPO-F; 618 (251) mL) than the euhydrated with fluid (EU-F; 400 (247) mL) trials (P<0.01). Chapter 5 and 6 showed that a bolus of water (500 mL) immediately before an ad-libitum porridge breakfast reduced energy intake in both healthy and overweight and obese subjects (P<0.001). The water preload increased fullness and decreased hunger compared to pre-trial in both studies (P<0.001). In Chapter 7, 75 minutes before an ad-libitum lunch a post-exercise milk (MILK) based drink reduced energy intake (6746 (2035) kJ) compared to an isoenergetic flavoured carbohydrate (CHO) and water based drink (7762 (1921) kJ; 7672 (2005) kJ) (P<0.05). This thesis has shown that when subjects are hypohydrated, either after exercise or after 24 h of fluid restriction energy intake is not different at an ad-libitum meal. However, there is an increased thirst and subsequent fluid intake before an ad-libitum meal (chapter 3 and 4). This effect was more acutely displayed when a bolus of water was provided immediately before an ad-libitum breakfast meal and subsequently decreased energy intake in both normal and overweight/ obese subjects (chapter 5 and 6). The possible mechanism for this was gastric fill and distension creating satiety before a meal. Chapter 7 has showed that when subjects consume isoenergetic drinks with different energy densities (milk vs CHO and water), before an ad-libitum lunch, energy intake was decreased when milk was consumed. Milk having an increased energy density due to larger protein fractions (casein) may further explain the decrease in energy intake found in chapters 5 and 6 by a similar mechanism. Therefore, gastric fill before a meal decreases ad-libitum energy intake by either the intake of water immediately before a meal or by milk as a more delayed response (75 min). The hydration status however, did not affect energy intake directly in our finding, although it did affect subsequent fluid ingestion, which may have affected findings in chapters 3 and 4.