Evaluation of the short and medium term use of insoles for personalised footwear

The personalisation of footwear can be beneficial for different population groups, including older people, individuals with foot pathologies or abnormalities and runners. For runners in particular, footwear personalisation has the potential to offer four main advantages: optimum fit, improved comfort perception, improved performance (by altering lower limb alignment to reduce muscle activity) and reducing injury risk through personalisation of cushioning and support requirements. Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has potential for making footwear personalisation economically feasible due to its geometric freedom, tool-less capability and direct manufacture from CAD models. However, it is not known how personalised footwear affects discomfort and biomechanics following short and medium term use. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the short and medium term use of personalised insoles in terms of discomfort and lower extremity biomechanics.