Evidence-based interventions for adult aural rehabilitation: that was then, this is now

More than a decade after Arthur Boothroyd published “Adult Aural Rehabilitation: What Is It and Does It Work?,” the four cornerstones of adult aural rehabilitation are re-examined in terms of research that we and others in the field have undertaken. The focus is on novel advances in high-quality research relating to interventions to support self-management for hearing aids and other listening devices (sensory management), knowledge and skill (instruction), auditory and cognitive training (perceptual training), and motivational engagement (counseling). Much of this new research has a theoretical underpinning (e.g., behavior change theory) to better guide the development and evaluation of interventions, with a focus on self-management and patient-centered approaches. New and emerging technologies that support e- and m-health delivery of interventions provide greater personalization and interactivity to promote self-management of hearing loss. Looking to the future, there remains a requirement for a set of relevant and appropriate outcome measures to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions trialed in clinical studies. There is a continuing need for high-quality evidence, underpinned by contemporary theory, to increase the likelihood that translational adult aural rehabilitation research that aims to benefit patients will be applied in future clinical practice.