Exercise during hemodialysis does not affect the phenotype or pro-thrombotic nature of microparticles but alters their pro-inflammatory function

Hemodialysis patients have dysfunctional immune systems, chronic inflammation and comorbidity-associated risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and infection. Microparticles are biologically active nanovesicles shed from activated endothelial cells, immune cells, and platelets; they are elevated in hemodialysis patients and are associated with chronic inflammation and predictive of CVD mortality in this group. Exercise is advocated in hemodialysis to improve cardiovascular health yet acute exercise induces an increase in circulating microparticles in healthy populations. Therefore, this study aimed to assess acute effect of intradialytic exercise (IDE) on microparticle number and phenotype, and their ability to induce endothelial cell reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. Eleven patients were studied during a routine hemodialysis session and one where they exercised in a randomized cross-over design. Microparticle number increased during hemodialysis (2064–7071 microparticles/lL, P < 0.001) as did phosphatidylserine+ (P < 0.05), platelet-derived (P < 0.01) and percentage procoagulant neutrophil-derived microparticles (P < 0.05), but this was not affected by IDE. However, microparticles collected immediately and 60 min after IDE (but not later) induced greater ROS generation from cultured endothelial cells (P < 0.05), suggesting a transient proinflammatory event. In summary IDE does not further increase prothrombotic microparticle numbers that occurs during hemodialysis. However, given acute proinflammatory responses to exercise stimulate an adaptation toward a circulating anti-inflammatory environment, microparticle-induced transient increases of endothelial cell ROS in vitro with IDE may indicate the potential for a longer-term anti-inflammatory adaptive effect. These findings provide a crucial evidence base for future studies of microparticles responses to IDE in view of the exceptionally high risk of CVD in these patients.