Fault estimation algorithms: design and verification
2016-11-21T13:29:55Z (GMT) by
The research in this thesis is undertaken by observing that modern systems are becoming more and more complex and safety-critical due to the increasing requirements on system smartness and autonomy, and as a result health monitoring system needs to be developed to meet the requirements on system safety and reliability. The state-of-the-art approaches to monitoring system status are model based Fault Diagnosis (FD) systems, which can fuse the advantages of system physical modelling and sensors' characteristics. A number of model based FD approaches have been proposed. The conventional residual based approaches by monitoring system output estimation errors, however, may have certain limitations such as complex diagnosis logic for fault isolation, less sensitiveness to system faults and high computation load. More importantly, little attention has been paid to the problem of fault diagnosis system verification which answers the question that under what condition (i.e., level of uncertainties) a fault diagnosis system is valid. To this end, this thesis investigates the design and verification of fault diagnosis algorithms. It first highlights the differences between two popular FD approaches (i.e., residual based and fault estimation based) through a case study. On this basis, a set of uncertainty estimation algorithms are proposed to generate fault estimates according to different specifications after interpreting the FD problem as an uncertainty estimation problem. Then FD algorithm verification and threshold selection are investigated considering that there are always some mismatches between the real plant and the mathematical model used for FD observer design. Reachability analysis is drawn to evaluate the effect of uncertainties and faults such that it can be quantitatively verified under what condition a FD algorithm is valid. First the proposed fault estimation algorithms in this thesis, on the one hand, extend the existing approaches by pooling the available prior information such that performance can be enhanced, and on the other hand relax the existence condition and reduce the computation load by exploiting the reduced order observer structure. Second, the proposed framework for fault diagnosis system verification bridges the gap between academia and industry since on the one hand a given FD algorithm can be verified under what condition it is effective, and on the other hand different FD algorithms can be compared and selected for different application scenarios. It should be highlighted that although the algorithm design and verification are for fault diagnosis systems, they can also be applied for other systems such as disturbance rejection control system among many others.