Formation and homogenisation of SnCu interconnects by self-propagated exothermic reactive bonding

We produced SnCu interconnects by self-propagated exothermic reactions using AlNi NanoFoil at ambient conditions, through the instantaneous localised heat across the interfaces between Sn electroplated Cu substrates. This technique presents a great potential for electronics integration with minimal thermal effects to the components. However, the metastable phases resulted from the non-equilibrium interfacial reactions and solidification were inevitable under a highly transient regime due to a drastic heating/cooling (over 107 K/s). In this study, Finite Element Analysis was performed to predict the temperature profiles across bonding interfaces, which were subsequently correlated with the formation and homogenisation of the bonded structures during the bonding and post-bonding ageing process. It has been revealed that, for nano-sized metastable phases, their formation, morphologies and distribution were primarily attributed to the convective mass transportation, liquid-solid inter-diffusion, and directional non-equilibrium solidification of Sn in molten zone of the bonding interfaces. The non-equilibrium phases initially formed in the SnCu interconnects can be homogenised towards the equilibrium status by accelerated ageing. This was achieved through the coalescing and subsequent growth of the original nano-sized metastable phases, as a result of the solid-diffusion of Cu and Ag atoms at intergranular boundary regions of Sn grains, AlNi NanoFoil/Sn. and Cu/Sn interfaces.