Frame registration for motion compensation in imaging photoplethysmography

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is an emerging technology used to assess microcirculation and cardiovascular signs by collecting backscattered light from illuminated tissue using optical imaging sensors. An engineering approach is used to evaluate whether a silicone cast of a human palm might be effectively utilized to predict the results of image registration schemes for motion compensation prior to their application on live human tissue. This allows us to establish a performance baseline for each of the algorithms and to isolate performance and noise fluctuations due to the induced motion from the temporally changing physiological signs. A multi-stage evaluation model is developed to qualitatively assess the influence of the region of interest (ROI), system resolution and distance, reference frame selection, and signal normalization on extracted iPPG waveforms from live tissue. We conclude that the application of image registration is able to deliver up to 75% signal-to-noise (SNR) improvement (4.75 to 8.34) over an uncompensated iPPG signal by employing an intensity-based algorithm with a moving reference frame.