Genetic analysis of novel Alu insertion polymorphisms in selected Indian populations.

Indian subpopulations (Chenchu, Koya, and Lobana Sikh) were analyzed at the genetic level for 12 Alu polymorphisms. These markers were then utilized to establish levels of genetic identity between the Indian populations and more widely between the Indian populations and a European population.Previously collected blood samples were extracted using the phenol-chloroform method. The samples were utilized as templates for PCR using Alu specific primers and then analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for the presence and absence of the approximately 300 bp insertions. Allele frequencies were calculated by the gene counting method and were tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, heterozygosities, inbreeding coefficient, and GST to assess the level of genetic differentiation.All of the Alu loci were polymorphic in the three Indian populations studied and their average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.294 (Lobana Sikh) to 0.357 (Koya). Allele and genotype frequency variation at the 2b, 9a, and ACE loci led to statistically significant pairwise differences among the three study populations. Overall population heterogeneity was observed for 7 out of 12 Alu polymorphisms.The overall results show that these Indian samples, though displaying significant genetic variation and differences among themselves, form an Indian cluster, which as expected, is distinct from the European sample (Russian). As Alus are easily analyzed and quantified by standard and cost-effective methodologies, this finding further reinforces their utility as effective population genetic markers. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.