Holistic thermal energy modelling for full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)

Full hybrid electric vehicles are usually defined by their capability to drive in a fully electric mode, offering the advantage that they do not produce any emissions at the point of use. This is particularly important in built up areas, where localized emissions in the form of NOx and particulate matter may worsen health issues such as respiratory disease. However, high degrees of electrification also mean that waste heat from the internal combustion engine is often not available for heating the cabin and for maintaining the temperature of the powertrain and emissions control system. If not managed properly, this can result in increased fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and reduced electric-only range at moderately high or low ambient temperatures negating many of the benefits of the electrification. This paper describes the development of a holistic, modular vehicle model designed for development of an integrated thermal energy management strategy. The developed model utilizes advanced simulation techniques, such as co-simulation, to incorporate a high-fidelity 1D thermo-fluid model, a multi-phase HVAC model, and a multi-zone cabin model within an existing longitudinal powertrain simulation environment. It is shown that the final model is useful of detailed analysis of thermal pathways including energy losses due to powertrain warm-up at various ambient temperatures and after periods of parked time. This enables identification of sources of energy loss and inefficiency over a wide range of environmental conditions.

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CC BY-NC-ND 4.0