Implementation of private sector participation in Karachi

The population of Karachi has grown from 400,000 in 1941 to about 13,000,000 in 1998 due to initial influx of refugees in 1947 and urban migration afterward. This required extensive growth and improvements in water and sewerage services within a short time period. Consequently, Government of Sindh (GoS) implemented infrastructure development and operational activities under various institutional arrangements, but for a variety of reasons, many of them fell short of fully addressing the growing needs of the city. GoS created Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB) in response to this situation in February 1983. With some success, notable efforts were made by GoS, with the support of multilateral lending agencies, to improve the technical and commercial position of KWSB. Despite this, water and sewerage services remain limited, and given the commercial prominence of Karachi in Pakistan, compare poorly in some respects with major cities in South and East Asia.