Integrity of map-matching algorithms

Map-matching algorithms are used to integrate positioning data with digital road network data so that vehicles can be placed on a road map. However, due to error associated with both positioning and map data, there can be a high degree of uncertainty associated with the map-matched locations. A quality indicator representing the level of confidence (integrity) in map-matched locations is essential for some Intelligent Transport System applications and could provide a warning to the user and provide a means of fast recovery from a failure. The objective of this paper is to determine an empirical method to derive the integrity of a map-matched location for three previously developed algorithms. This is achieved by formulating a metric based on various error sources associated with the positioning data and the map data. The metric ranges from 0 to 100 where 0 indicates a very high level of uncertainty in the map-matched location and 100 indicates a very low level of uncertainty. The integrity method is then tested for the three map-matching algorithms in the cases when the positioning data is from either a stand-alone global positioning system (GPS) or GPS integrated with deduced reckoning (DR) and for map data from three different scales (1:1250, 1:2500, and 1:50 000). The results suggest that the performance of the integrity method depends on the type of map-matching algorithm and the quality of the digital map data. A valid integrity warning is achieved 98.2% of the time in the case of the fuzzy logic map-matching algorithm with positioning data come from integrated GPS/DR and a digital map data with a scale of 1:2500.