Ion-selective electrodes in environmental analysis

An overview is given dealing with the application of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) in environmental analysis. ISEs are placed into the context of the trend of development of sensors for extensive and frequent monitoring. Discussed are the issues such as sensing platforms and their mass-production, improvement of precision, diagnostic of sensor functionality, and development of reference electrodes. Several examples of real-life application of ISEs in environmental analysis are given. The main emphasis of this article is directed towards summarizing recent results of the authors during the past several years.