Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Journal Cover December 2019

2019-12-06T12:08:56Z (GMT) by Andrew Selby
Asthma and allergy incidence continue to increase globally. We have made significant strides in treating disease, but it is becoming more apparent that we need to advance our knowledge into the origins of asthmatic disease. Much recent work has indicated that microbiome composition influences immune regulation and that multiple health care factors have driven a loss in microbiome diversity in modern human populations. Evidence is growing of microbiota-driven influences on immune development, asthma susceptibility, and asthma pathogenesis. The focus of this review is to highlight the strides the field has made in characterizing the constituents of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, such as Helicobacter pylori, other members of the neonatal intestinal microbiota, and microbial peptides and metabolites that influence host immunity and immune response to allergens. As we delve further into this field of research, the goal will be to find actionable and clinical interventions to identify at-risk populations earlier to prevent disease onset. Manipulation of the host microbial community during infancy might be an especially promising approach.