Measurement and prediction of in-cylinder friction in internal combustion engines
2014-06-04T08:12:05Z (GMT) by
Currently, nearly 75% of worldwide transport is powered by internal combustion engines, with the worldwide transport sector accounting for 14% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. With the current trend of downsizing and reducing vehicle cost, expensive solutions such as hybrids are often not viable. One solution is to reduce engine parasitic losses, thereby indirectly improving fuel efficiency, hence emissions. In terms of frictional losses, the piston-cylinder system accounts for 50% of all such losses, which altogether contribute to 20% of all engine losses. The thesis describes an efficient analytical-numerical model in terms of computation times and CPU requirements. The model is a one dimensional analytical solution of Reynolds equation using Elrods cavitation algorithm. The model also includes determination of viscous friction as well as boundary/asperity friction based on the work of Greenwood and Tripp. Lubrication rheology is adjusted for generated hydrodynamic pressures and measured conjunctional temperature based on the cylinder liner. Model predictions are supported by a range of experimental work, from basic science measurements using an instrumented precision slider bearing rig for direct measurement of friction to the development and use of a floating liner on a motored and fired high speed, high performance internal combustion engine at the real situation practical level. The thesis highlights the development of the experimental rigs/engines as well application of state of the art instrumentation and data processing. The combined numerical and experimental analysis show that a significant proportion of friction takes place at the top-dead-center reversal in the transition from the compression to the power stroke. Under motored conditions with low in-cylinder pressures this appears to follow Poiseuille friction, whereas under fired conditions with higher in-cylinder pressures causing increased compression ring sealing a mixed and/or boundary regime of lubrication is observed and predicted. Other than at the TDC reversal in both motored and fired conditions the frictional characteristics follow in direct proportion to the piston sliding velocity, therefore showing the dominance of viscous friction. One outcome of the thesis is a validated analytical model which due to its computational efficiency can now be used in industry to provide timely predictions for the compression ring contact zone. Most significantly, the thesis has established an experimental procedure, infrastructure and data processing methods which enable the determination of the regime of lubrication and the underlying mechanisms of friction generation from basic science sliding surfaces to in situ direct measurements from a fired engine at high loads and sliding speeds.