Mechanism of material removal in orthogonal cutting of cortical bone

Analysis: of a mechanism of bone cutting has an important theoretical and practical significance for orthopaedic surgeries. In this study, the mechanism of material removal in orthogonal cutting of cortical bone is investigated. Chip morphology and crack propagation in cortical bone for various cutting directions and depth-of-cut (DOC) levels are analysed, with consideration of microstructural and sub-microstructural features and material anisotropy. Effects of different material properties of osteons, interstitial matrix and cement lines on chip morphology and crack propagation are elucidated for different cutting directions. This study revealed that differences in chip morphology for various DOCs were due to comparable sizes of the osteons, lamellae and DOC. Acquired force signals and recorded high-speed videos revealed the reasons of fluctuations of dynamic components in tests. Meanwhile, a frequency-domain analysis of force signals showed a frequency difference between formation of a bulk fractured chip and small debris for different cutting directions. In addition, SEM images of the top and side surfaces of the machined bone were obtained. Thus, the analysis of the cutting force and surface damage validated the character of chip formation and explained the material-removal mechanism. This study reveals the mechanism of chip formation in the orthogonal cutting of the cortical bone, demonstrating importance of the correlation between the chip morphologies, the depth of cut and the microstructure and submicrostructure of the cortical bone. For the first time, it assessed the fluctuations of cutting forces, accompanying chip formation, in time and frequency domains. These findings provide fundamental information important for analysis of cutting-induced damage of the bone tissue, optimization of the cutting process and clinical applications of orthopaedic instruments.