Microwave synthesised Pd-TiO2 for photocatalytic ammonia production

Palladium doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesised by a rapid (3 min) one-pot microwave synthesis technique at low temperature and pressure. After being fully characterised by SEM, XRD, Raman, XPS and EDX, photocatalytic nitrate reduction and ammonia production was studied over various dopant levels between 0–3.97wt% Pd and compared to similar previous literature. Improved yields of ammonia were observed with most dopant levels when compared to non-doped microwave synthesised TiO2 with 2.65wt% found to be the optimum dopant level producing 21.2 µmol NH3. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of TiO2 and Pd-TiO2 photoelectrodes revealed improvements in charge transfer characteristics at high Pd dopant levels.