Modality-specific training adaptations – do they lead to a dampened acute inflammatory response to exercise?
journal contributionposted on 12.02.2019 by Sven Hoekstra, Matthew N. Westerman, Flavio Beke, Nicolette Bishop, Christof Leicht
Any type of content formally published in an academic journal, usually following a peer-review process.
While adaptations to a short-term training program can dampen the acute inflammatory response to exercise, less is known about the influence of chronic modality-specific adaptations to training. This study compares the acute inflammatory response to upper- and lower-body interval exercise in individuals chronically trained in these respective modalities. Ninety minutes of interval exercise matched for relative power output on an arm-crank (ARM) and cycle ergometer (LEG) was performed by 8 trained paddlers and 8 trained cyclists. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were analysed in plasma, while the expression of intracellular Hsp72 was assessed in monocytes (iHsp72). Interleukin-6 was increased following both modalities (fold change ARM: 7.23±3.56, p<0.001; LEG: 9.03±4.82 p<0.001), in both groups (cyclists p<0.001; paddlers p<0.001), but the increase was smaller in ARM compared with LEG (Time x Modality p<0.001). ARM induced a smaller iHsp72 response compared with LEG (fold change ARM: 1.07±0.14, p=0.102; LEG: 1.18±0.14, p<0.001, Time x Modality p = 0.039). Following ARM, iHsp72 expression was increased in the cyclists only (fold change cyclists: 1.12±0.11, p=0.018; paddlers: 1.03±0.17, p=0.647), while iHsp72 expression following LEG was increased in both groups (fold change cyclists: 1.14±0.15, p=0.027; paddlers: 1.22±0.13, p< 0.001). Taken together, the acute inflammatory response to lower-body interval exercise was larger compared with work-matched upper-body interval exercise. Moreover, adaptations to upper-body exercise training dampened the iHsp72 response to this modality. Therefore, exercise may be less effective in reducing chronic low-grade inflammation in individuals relying on their upper body, such as wheelchair users.
- Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences