Modelling fracture processes in bones

This chapter discusses numerical simulations of fracture and deformation of a cortical bone tissue employing an extended finiteelement method (X-FEM). The chapter first reviews the literature on available finite-element models for both macroscopic and microscopic fracture behaviours of the cortical bone tissue. It then discusses the formulation and analysis of a number of finite-element models investigating deformation and fracture of cortical bone using X-FEM at different length scales and for various loading conditions.