Modern school and university
2015-06-18T12:42:31Z (GMT) by
This chapter outlines major transformations in the university from the early modern period to the origins of mass higher education in the 1960s and examines their relation to the development of modern school education. Emphasis is placed on intellectual and organizational reforms in the 16th and 17th centuries, the introduction of compulsory education in the 18th and 19th centuries, the global proliferation of the research university since the 19th century, and the emergence of the expensive technosciences as an important arena of international collaboration and competition in the 20th century. This history of modern schools and universities was profoundly shaped by a complex, long-term transition from a humanistic to a scientific paradigm of learning, teaching, and research that revolutionized these institutions and explains why recent globalization processes in education and research are governed by discourses about the natural and technical sciences and their evaluation cultures.