Morphological measurement using close range digital photogrammetry-guidance from ISPRS V6

The revolution in digital camera technology has provided Earth Scientists with new opportunities for spatial measurement. High-resolution sensors at ever reducing costs, combined with software increasingly marketed as "easy-to-use", has tempted a new generation of physical geographers and geomorphologist to consider using digital photogrammetry. This trend, combined with the parallel revolution in terrestrial laser scanning technology, has allowed Earth Scientists to carry out their own spatial data acquisition, with some notable successes. The International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) recognises this trend and has established Working Group V6 to provide an international focus for close range measurement for the earth sciences ( The fear is that many new users may be disappointed with initial results, often the result of inexperience and not limitations of the science of photogrammetry. This paper therefore provides basic guidance to allow new users to carry out photogrammetric surveys with a higher degree of confidence and hopefully increased success. It covers aspects relating to camera and lens selection, camera calibration, photo acquisition, photo control requirements and issues relating to data processing. The material represents the combined expertise of 85 members from across the world, particularly the detailed and combined contributions from the named authors.