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No effect of 24 h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in overweight and obese males

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journal contribution
posted on 23.08.2016 by David Clayton, Mark Creese, Nicola Skidmore, David Stensel, Lewis James
© 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. Background/Objectives:Long-term success of weight loss diets might depend on how the appetite regulatory system responds to energy restriction (ER). This study determined the effect of 24 h severe ER on subjective and hormonal appetite regulation, subsequent ad libitum energy intake and metabolism.Subjects/Methods:In randomised order, eight overweight or obese males consumed a 24 h diet containing either 100% (12105 (1174 kJ; energy balance; EB) or 25% (3039 (295) kJ; ER) of estimated daily energy requirements (EER). An individualised standard breakfast containing 25% of EER (3216 (341) kJ) was consumed the following morning and resting energy expenditure, substrate utilisation and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17–36), glucose-dependant insulinotropic peptide (GIP1–42), glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were determined for 4 h after breakfast. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed in the laboratory on day 2 and via food records on day 3. Subjective appetite was assessed throughout.Results:Energy intake was not different between trials for day 2 (EB: 14946 (1272) kJ; ER: 15251 (2114) kJ; P=0.623), day 3 (EB: 10580 (2457) kJ; 10812 (4357) kJ; P=0.832) or day 2 and 3 combined (P=0.693). Subjective appetite was increased during ER on day 1 (P<0.01), but was not different between trials on day 2 (P>0.381). Acylated ghrelin, GLP-17–36 and insulin were not different between trials (P>0.104). Post-breakfast area under the curve (AUC) for NEFA (P<0.05) and GIP1–42 (P<0.01) were greater during ER compared with EB. Fat oxidation was greater (P<0.01) and carbohydrate oxidation was lower (P<0.01) during ER, but energy expenditure was not different between trials (P=0.158).Conclusions:These results suggest that 24 h severe ER does not affect appetite regulation or energy intake in the subsequent 48 h. This style of dieting may be conducive to maintenance of a negative EB by limiting compensatory eating behaviour, and therefore may assist with weight loss.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 12 July 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.106.


This research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Diet, Lifestyle & Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit based at University Hospitals of Leicester and Loughborough University.



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

International Journal of Obesity


CLAYTON, D.J. ...et al., 2016. No effect of 24 h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in overweight and obese males. International Journal of Obesity, 40 (11), pp. 1662-1670.


© Macmillan Publishers Ltd.


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date



This paper was accepted for publication in the journal International Journal of Obesity and the definitive published version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2016.106.