On the dual post correspondence problem

The Dual Post Correspondence Problem asks whether, for a given word α, there exists a pair of distinct morphisms σ,τ, one of which needs to be non-periodic, such that σ(α) = τ(α) is satisfied. This problem is important for the research on equality sets, which are a vital concept in the theory of computation, as it helps to identify words that are in trivial equality sets only. Little is known about the Dual PCP for words α over larger than binary alphabets, especially for so-called ratio-primitive examples. In the present paper, we address this question in a way that simplifies the usual method, which means that we can reduce the intricacy of the word equations involved in dealing with the Dual PCP. Our approach yields large sets of words for which there exists a solution to the Dual PCP as well as examples of words over arbitrary alphabets for which such a solution does not exist.