Predicting accident frequency at their severity levels and its application in site ranking using a two-stage mixed multivariate model

2011-08-09T15:35:42Z (GMT) by Chao Wang Mohammed Quddus Stephen Ison
Accident prediction models (APMs) have been extensively used in site ranking with the objective of identifying accident hotspots. Previously this has been achieved by using a univariate count data or a multivariate count data model (e.g. multivariate Poissonlognormal) for modelling the number of accidents at different severity levels simultaneously. This paper proposes an alternative method to estimate accident frequency at different severity levels, namely the two-stage mixed multivariate model which combines both accident frequency and severity models. The accident, traffic and road characteristics data from the M25 motorway and surrounding major roads in England have been collected to demonstrate the use of the two-stage model. A Bayesian spatial model and a mixed logit model have been employed at each stage for accident frequency and severity analysis respectively, and the results combined to produce estimation of the number of accidents at different severity levels. Based on the results from the two-stage model, the accident hotspots on the M25 and surround have been identified. The ranking result using the twostage model has also been compared with other ranking methods, such as the naïve ranking method, multivariate Poisson-lognormal and fixed proportion method. Compared to the traditional frequency based analysis, the two-stage model has the advantage in that it utilises more detailed individual accident level data and is able to predict low frequency accidents (such as fatal accidents). Therefore, the two-stage mixed multivariate model is a promising tool in predicting accident frequency according to their severity levels and site ranking.