Putting the end-user first: towards addressing the contesting values in renewable energy systems deployment for low income households - a case of Likoma Island in Malawi

This work is part of an ongoing research in which amongst the objectives, a hybrid photovoltaic-wind-diesel system was modelled for Likoma Island. The modelled hybrid system has potential to reduce the generation cost compared to the existing diesel generators by approximately 34-62% depending on interest rates on financing. However, this would not be enough to reduce the subsidised electricity tariff which is charged at US$0.07 per kWh to users including low-income households. This paper focuses on the energy needs and energy requirements for good well-being; household purchasing-power; prioritisation of energy services; and past experiences with traditional and conventional energy sources relating to service satisfaction for households at Likoma Island based on empirical data. The paper discusses potential barriers to meeting the household energy requirements from grid based renewable energy solutions. Approaches for addressing the identified barriers, and the required attributes for new technological solutions are proposed.